sacramento connect http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com sacramento blogs & community news around sacramento california Tue, 31 Mar 2015 21:21:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.9.3 From conventions to concerts, cancellations over “Religious Freedom Act” in Indiana begin http://j.mp/1MvmH9Z http://j.mp/1MvmH9Z#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 21:21:21 +0000 http://sierrafoothillsreport.com/?p=72578 Continue reading ]]> http://sierrafoothillsreport.com/2015/03/31/from-conventions-to-concerts-cancellations-over-religious-freedom-act-in-indiana-begin/feed/ 0 The video from my MOPS webinar (and a quick update) http://j.mp/1MvmBPL http://j.mp/1MvmBPL#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 20:39:30 +0000 http://gennyheikka.com/?p=6723 Continue reading]]> http://gennyheikka.com/2015/03/5-things-you-can-do-to-pursue-your-dreams.html/feed 0 Sacramento poised to move forward on plastic bag ban http://j.mp/1ywW3SC http://j.mp/1ywW3SC#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 19:52:34 +0000 http://yubanet.com/california/Sacramento-poised-to-move-forward-on-plastic-bag-ban.php
“Single-use plastic shopping bags pose a costly burden on our environment and our economy,” says Mark Murray of California vs. Big Plastic www.CAvsBigPlastic.com , the statewide group pushing for bag bans. “We applaud Mayor Kevin Johnson and the City Council for standing up to the out-of-state plastics companies that have spent more than $7.5 million in California trying to kill these effective, sensible, and popular laws.”

The move comes after a state ban that was scheduled to take effect on July 1, 2015 was suspended. The plastic bag industry spent $3.2 million to put a referendum on the ban on the ballot in November 2016; 98 percent of the funds for the industry effort came from outside the state, according to the California Secretary of State’s office.

If the bag ban measure proposed by Mayor Kevin Johnson is approved by the Council as expected on Tuesday night, Sacramento would save more than 10 million plastic bags from going to its landfill every month. The bags gum up recycling equipment and are responsible for widespread litter in the city, costing taxpayers tens of thousands of dollars each year, notes Murray.

City staff cited statistics from the California Coastal Commission that nearly 80 percent of all marine debris is plastic, and from Ocean Conservancy that plastic bags kill nearly 1 million seabirds and 100,000 other marine mammals each year worldwide.

Sacramento will join Davis, San Francisco, Napa, and other area cities with bans. Another major city, San Diego, also announced it is moving forward with a bag ban; Republican Mayor Kevin Faulconer and Democratic City Council President Sherri Lightner announced last month they would push for a law like Sacramento’s new regulation.

Notwithstanding Sacramento’s action, more than 15 billion plastic bags are expected to enter California landfills between now and November 2016 because of the industry-financed referendum on the state law.

(The City of Sacramento memo on the legislation can be found here: http://sacramento.granicus.com/MetaViewer.php?view_id=21&event_id=2594&meta_id=434129 )]]>
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IMAX: Island of Lemurs – Madagascar 2D / 3D Blu-ray Review http://j.mp/1ywW4Ga http://j.mp/1ywW4Ga#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:48:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=41a4e7b79e2161f8cda39599360ec5df Reviewed by Sean Ferguson
Captured with IMAX 3D cameras, Island of Lemurs: Madagascar takes audiences on a spectacular journey to the remote and wondrous world of Madagascar, where lemurs arrived millions of years ago as castaways. They’ve since evolved into hundreds of diverse species, but are now highly endangered. Island of Lemurs: Madagascar highlights the tireless efforts of trailblazing scientist Dr. Patricia C. Wright and her lifelong mission to help these strange and adorable creatures survive in the modern world. Joining David Douglas once again behind the scenes are editor Beth Spiegel, co-producer Diane Roberts, and composer Mark Mothersbaugh. Songs are by Hanitrarivo Rasoanaivo & Tarika.
Read more »
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Governor Brown Issues Proclamation Declaring 2015 César Chávez Day http://j.mp/19yyLFr http://j.mp/19yyLFr#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:46:42 +0000 http://yubanet.com/california/Governor-Brown-Issues-Proclamation-Declaring-2015-C-sar-Ch-vez-Day.php
The text of the proclamation is below:
CC2015.jpg
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Soil organic matter susceptible to climate change http://j.mp/19yCkeO http://j.mp/19yCkeO#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:43:29 +0000 http://yubanet.com/scitech/Soil-organic-matter-susceptible-to-climate-change.php soil700x425.png
Researchers sample soil at the Pendleton Research Station (Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center, OSU). Marco Keiluweit of Oregon State University (in the pit) takes soil samples and is assisted by collaborators Jeremy Bougoure and Jennifer Pett-Ridge of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Photo by Markus Kleber.March 31, 2015 - Plants direct between 40 percent and 60 percent of photosynthetically fixed carbon to their roots and much of this carbon is secreted and then taken up by root-associated soil microorganisms. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere are projected to increase the quantity and alter the composition of root secretions released into the soil.

In new research in the March 30 edition of the journal, Nature Climate Change, Lawrence Livermore scientists and collaborators found that the common root secretion, oxalic acid, can promote soil carbon loss by an unconventional mechanism -- freeing organic compounds from protective associations with minerals.

Root secretion-induced soil carbon loss is commonly attributed to “priming” -- a short-term increase in microbial mineralization of native soil carbon as a result of fresh carbon inputs to the soil.

Previous studies have suggested that climate change enhances root secretions of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased root secretion inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization, or “priming,” is commonly explained by the notion of 'cometabolism', i.e. that root secretions provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon.

“Our Lawrence Scholar Marco Keiluweit showed that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude,” said Jennifer Pett-Ridge, an LLNL scientist and one of the co-authors on the paper. “By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, some root secretions promote an indirect mechanism of accelerated carbon loss, more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favorable substrates.

“Our results provide new insights into the coupled biotic–abiotic mechanisms underlying the ‘priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales,” she said.

“Our study revealed a climate dependent `priming' mechanism where plant secretions counteract the strong protective mineral-organic associations and facilitate the loss of carbon from the soil system,” Pett-Ridge said. “If root secretion rates respond to climate change as predicted, elevated CO2 concentrations may not only stimulate secretion, they also may alter the composition of those secreted compounds released into soil, and increase metal and organic matter mobilization in the rooting zone.”

The work was done using two unique technological capabilities, the NanoSIMS at Livermore and the synchrotron spectroscopy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Other Livermore scientists include Peter Weber and Jeremy Bougoure (now at University of Western Australia). Collaborating institutions include Oregon State University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The work was supported by funding from the LLNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the Department of Energy (OBER) Genomic Science program."

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (www.llnl.gov) provides solutions to our nation’s most important national security challenges through innovative science, engineering and technology. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.
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PCSO arrests drug dealer during alcohol “shoulder tap” operation http://j.mp/1BMvZUS http://j.mp/1BMvZUS#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:36:00 +0000 http://yubanet.com/regional/PCSO-arrests-drug-dealer-during-alcohol-shoulder-tap-operation.php
Noah James Phippen, 19, was asked by a 20-year-old, who was part of a state Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control “shoulder tap” operation, if he’d buy him a six-pack of beer. Phippen said he wasn’t old enough to buy alcohol either, but offered to sell the decoy some “California gold cap mushrooms.” The decoy agreed and purchased a small amount with his beer money. The incident occurred in the 1100 block of Douglas Blvd.

Throughout the drug transaction, deputies from the Placer County Sheriff’s Office were nearby in unmarked vehicles and on foot. The decoy was wearing a wire and the conversation was monitored.

Phippen was confronted a short distance away by deputies and he denied selling any drugs. But a search of his vehicle revealed the large supply of drugs and cash. Phippen was booked at the Placer County Jail on charges of possession and sales of psilocybin; possession of cocaine for sale and transportation of cocaine; and possession of methamphetamine. Phippen remains in custody with bail set at $200,000.

The Placer County Sheriff’s Office runs “shoulder taps” and other operations as part of a grant from the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control to battle under-age drinking and reduce access to alcohol for those under the age of 21.]]>
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Rest in Peace – Bill Gay Long-time resident of West Sacramento http://j.mp/1G44I6E http://j.mp/1G44I6E#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:31:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=7df1f12d2705de2fa83bc26a857e6f87 http://west-sacramento.blogspot.com/feeds/2760233416907158950/comments/default 0 Elk Grove Mayor, Three City Councilmen Unwilling to Take Stand on Indiana Anti-LGBT Imbroglio http://j.mp/1BMw0Ic http://j.mp/1BMw0Ic#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 17:30:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=057605d7affae0ee96b438441f075e2d March 31, 2015 |

Since last week's signing by Indiana Gov. Mike Pence of that state's so-called Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a firestorm of controversy has erupted.

Uniformly, the law has been condemned by big business, civil rights leaders and especially businesses in the the City of Indianapolis. Last week, San Francisco and Seattle mayor's Ed Lee and Ed Murray imposed a ban on discretionary city employee travel to the state. Yesterday, the State of Washington imposed a similar ban.
Change the word "white" to 'straight" and you can get an idea
of how Indians's new Religious Freedom Restoration Act can 
be applied. Does it take that much courage from Mayor 
Gary Davis and Council Member Steve Ly to take a stance
against something like this?

On Sunday, an email of inquiry was sent to Elk Grove Mayor Gary Davis and Council Members Steve Detrick, Pat Hume, Steve Ly and Darren Suen to see if they would be willing to take a stand similar to San Francisco and Seattle on the issue. As of Tuesday, only one of the five has responded.

"I certainly share [San Francisco] Mayor Lee's sentiments," Council Member Suen said. "We shouldn't tolerate discrimination against the LGBT community or any other community."

Suen added that he did not think there is any pending city employee travel to Indiana and that passing an ordinance was not necessary. He added, "I'm willing to consider the matter, however."

The council's two Republican members, Detrick and Hume, not surprisingly did not respond to the inquiry. Neither man, nor their party, have been known to take pro-equality stances in the post 1965 Civil Rights era. Likewise, neither Detrick nor Hume have ever broached equality or social issues from the dais or during their campaigns, so why would they take a stance now?

On the other hand, the council's two other members, Democrat's Davis and Ly, have frequently invoked stances on a variety of social issues from the dais, and especially during their respective campaigns. On the Indiana matter however, both have stood mute.

For local members of the Democratic Party, especially Sacramento Stonewall Democrats, there must be disappointment that Davis and Ly have not taken a stance in condemning the law, which marginalizes a segment of the larger community. As leading elected party members in the region's second largest municipality, their lack of courage, even if it is largely symbolic, to stand with a constituency that has been four-square with them and the Democratic Party is demonstrative.

One final note, for all the talk we hear about attracting high end jobs, what better way to communicate that Elk Grove is a progressive-minded city, open and ready for business. If nothing else, the CEO of the city's largest private employer, Apple, who opined in opposition Indiana's new law, would have taken note. 

A lost opportunity. 



   

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Total eclipse of the Moon early this Saturday morning http://j.mp/1G3LC0D http://j.mp/1G3LC0D#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:35:54 +0000 http://yubanet.com/regional/Total-eclipse-of-the-Moon-early-this-Saturday-morning.php splash3.jpg
A new ScienceCast video previews the lunar eclipse of April 4, 2015March 31, 2015 - It's déjà vu all over again. For the third time in less than a year, sky watchers in the United States can see a total eclipse of the Moon.

The action begins at 3:16 AM Pacific Daylight Time on the morning of April 4th when the edge of the Moon first enters the amber core of Earth’s shadow. For the next hour and 45 minutes, Earth's shadow will move across the lunar disk, ultimately swallowing the entire Moon at 4:58 AM PDT.

East of the Mississippi River, the eclipse will be interrupted by sunrise. People can see only a partial eclipse. West of the Mississippi River, people can see the whole thing, including totality.

"Totality" is when the Moon is fully inside Earth's shadow. Some total eclipses last for more than an hour. In this case, however, totality spans just 4 minutes and 43 seconds—a result of the fact that the Moon is skimming the outskirts of Earth's shadow rather than passing centrally through it.

The brevity of the eclipse highlights the importance of watching the clock: Be outside no later than 4:58 AM PDT to witness the red Moon!

Why red?

A quick trip to the Moon provides the answer: Imagine yourself standing on a dusty lunar plain looking up at the sky. Overhead hangs Earth, nightside down, completely hiding the sun behind it. The eclipse is underway.

You might expect Earth seen in this way to be utterly dark, but it's not. The rim of the planet looks to be on fire! As you scan your eye around Earth's circumference, you're seeing every sunrise and every sunset in the world, all of them, all at once. This incredible light beams into the heart of Earth's shadow, filling it with a coppery glow and transforming the Moon into a great red orb when viewed from Earth.

The total eclipse of April 4, 2015, is the third of four total lunar eclipses separated by approximately 6 months, a phenomenon astronomers call a "tetrad." Such a closely-spaced succession of eclipses is a fairly rare occurrence. The complete list of dates is April 15th, 2014; Oct. 8th, 2014; April 4th, 2015; and Sept. 28th, 2015.

Set your alarm before sunrise on April 4th, and enjoy the show.
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Secretary of State Releases Feb. 2015 Report on Registration http://j.mp/1EZbZzg http://j.mp/1EZbZzg#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:33:07 +0000 http://yubanet.com/california/Secretary-of-State-Releases-Feb-2015-Report-on-Registration.php
A total of 17,717,936 Californians are currently registered to vote – down 337,847 since the last off-year report, but up 531,405 from two years earlier. "While registration rates fluctuate year-to-year, the stubborn truth remains that more than a quarter of otherwise eligible California citizens are not registered to vote," Padilla said. "If we are serious about increasing voter turnout in California, we must do more to increase voter registration in California,” said Padilla.

Secretary Padilla is calling for a new Motor Voter law that would seamlessly register voters when they get a driver's license or renew one. Oregon Governor Kate Brown signed into law a similar measure earlier this month. Padilla called the Oregon law "a model for California."

In the last two years, the percentage of voters registered with the Democratic Party decreased by 0.7% and voters registered with the Republican Party decreased by .9%. The number of registered voters with no party preference has increased by 2.7%.

The February 10, 2015, Report of Registration reflects updates to voter registration rolls in California’s 58 counties, including the removal of registrants who have passed away, moved out of state, or have been determined to be ineligible to vote, as well as the addition of new registrants. The complete report is at www.sos.ca.gov/elections/voter-registration/voter-registration-statistics/ror-odd-year-2015.

By law, statewide voter registration updates must occur 60 and 15 days before each general election, and 154, 60 and 15 days before each primary election. One update is published in each odd-numbered year with no regularly scheduled statewide election.]]>
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On Holiday… http://j.mp/1G3RDdK http://j.mp/1G3RDdK#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:29:35 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=382a17e33f1b9168b405f4cbc090468d http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/2015/03/31/on-holiday/feed/ 0 Oceans need thousands of years to recover from climate change http://j.mp/1G3MVwt http://j.mp/1G3MVwt#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:16:56 +0000 http://yubanet.com/enviro/Oceans-need-thousands-of-years-to-recover-from-climate-change.php 20150325_sarahmoffit_005.jpg
At the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory, Sarah Moffitt examines fossils within a marine sediment core. Photographer: Joe Proudman, UC DavisMarch 31, 2015 - Ocean ecosystems that experience rapid upheaval because of climate change can take thousands of years to recover, according to an examination of fossilized ocean fauna on the seafloor by the University of California, Davis.

The study, published online March 30 in the Early Edition of the journal PNAS, is the first record of disturbance and recovery of seafloor ecosystem biodiversity in response to abrupt climate change.

The work, led by Sarah Moffitt, a scientist from UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory and Coastal and Marine Sciences Institute, shows that while climate change and the deoxygenation of seawater can alter ocean ecology very quickly, recovery can be on a 1,000-year scale, not the 100-year scale previously thought.

Moffitt analyzed more than 5,400 invertebrate fossils, from sea urchins to clams, within a sediment core from offshore Santa Barbara. The core, essentially a tube of sediment that covers a period between 3,400 and 16,100 years ago, provides a before-and-after snapshot of what happened during the last major deglaciation.

The deglaciation was a time of abrupt climate warming, melting polar ice caps, and expansion of low oxygen zones in the ocean. This new study documents how long it took for recovery of ecosystems to begin, after a dramatic episode of climate change.

‘I cut it up like a cake’

Previous studies reconstructing Earth’s climatic history through marine sediments primarily relied upon single-celled organisms called foraminifera, and less so multicellular life, like invertebrates. Moffitt, whose background is in marine ecology, wondered what the invertebrate fossils within the sediments could tell her about the structure of the ocean ecosystem during past periods of climate change.

“After the initial sampling at sea, I took the entire core, which was about 30 feet long,” Moffitt said. “I cut it up like a cake, and I sampled the whole thing. Because of that, I had the whole record.”

The history lesson told by the sediment core is one of initially abundant, diverse and well-oxygenated seafloor ecosystems, then a period of warming and oxygen loss in the oceans, followed by a rapid loss of diversity. The fossils nearly disappeared from the record during those times of low oxygen.

The study found that oceanic oxygen levels fell by between 0.5 and 1.5 mL/L over a period of less than 100 years, showing that relatively minor changes in oxygen levels could result in dramatic changes and reorganizations for seafloor communities.

‘Gritty reality’

The results suggest that future global climate change may result in similar ecosystem-level effects with millennial-scale recovery periods.

“These past events show us how sensitive ecosystems are to changes in Earth’s climate — it commits us to thousands of years of recovery,” Moffitt said. “It shows us what we’re doing now is a long-term shift — there’s not a recovery we have to look forward to in my lifetime or my grandchildren's lifetime. It’s a gritty reality we need to face as scientists and people who care about the natural world and who make decisions about the natural world.”

The study’s co-authors include UC Davis professor Tessa Hill from the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Bodega Marine Laboratory, Peter Roopnarine, curator of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology from the California Academy of Sciences, and professor James Kennett from UC Santa Barbara Department of Earth Science.

The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, as well as the UC Multicampus Research Programs and Initiatives, UC Davis REACH IGERT, Mia Tegner Historical Ecology Grant, the EPA STAR Fellowship, and Switzer Environmental Fellowship.
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By the Numbers: Franchise Tax Board http://j.mp/1G3Rze3 http://j.mp/1G3Rze3#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 15:51:21 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24153 https://www.techwire.net/by-the-numbers-franchise-tax-board/feed/ 0 Foliar Feeding: The Pros and Cons http://j.mp/1G3OqL7 http://j.mp/1G3OqL7#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 15:51:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=c063e27b39623fc39f1b6ed329cfcf3f   You know how it is: you hear something enough, you believe it's true. Look on the side of any box of water soluble fertilizer, or any organic gardening guide, and there will be instructions on foliar feeding: spraying a water soluble fertilizer onto the leaves of a plant, as an alternative source of nutrition for the plant.

      Awhile back on the radio show, a tempest in a teapot developed when Milo Shammas, the President of the Dr. Earth line of organic products, mentioned that the best way to apply a foliar fertilizer, which he endorses, is in as fine a spray as possible. In his corner, Rodale's Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening, which states: "Plants can absorb liquid fertilizers through both their roots and through their leaf pores. Foliar feeding can supply nutrients when they are lacking or unavailable in the soil, or when roots are stressed. It is especially effective for giving fast growing plants like vegetables an extra boost during the growing season...Any sprayer or mister will work, from hand trigger units to knapsack sprayers. Set your sprayer to emit as fine a spray as possible."

      Disagreeing with the "fine spray" approach is another organic advocate and frequent guest of the radio shows, Steve Zien of the Sacramento area-based organic consulting service, Living Resources Company
     Zien says, "Some time ago I read a few studies that indicated that most of that (spraying with a fine spray) was not necessary. The studies used radio isotopes to follow the nutrients in the foliar fertilizer. They found that it got into the plant even when the water droplets were large. Another study indicated that even with the best spray equipment making the smallest water droplets possible with today's technology, the water droplets were still too large to physically enter the plant. They concluded that water droplet size is not important when foliar feeding. Other studies have shown that foliar fertilizer can even be absorbed by branches and tree trunks.  These two facts indicate that where you spray is also not critical.  Numerous studies have shown that foliar feeding is much more efficient at getting the nutrients absorbed and to the entire plant and more rapidly as well. 
     I think all the studies emphasize that even with all the benefits of foliar feeding, it cannot be considered a substitute for proper soil nutrition, and I fully agree with that. You need to feed the soil foodweb for healthy, pest resistant plants.I no longer worry about where I apply the foliar fertilizer. I try to apply it to as many plant surfaces as possible but do not worry about paying attention to the undersides of the leaves."

     Throwing cold water on both those practices are a couple of college educators, Deborah Flower of the Horticulture Department of American River College in Sacramento; and, Linda Chalker-Scott of the Horticulture Department at Washington State University and author of the award-winning book, "The Informed Gardener", who says this about foliar feeding: 
     "The existing research does not justify foliar fertilization of landscape plants as a general method of mineral nutrition. It can be useful for diagnosing deficiencies; for instance, spraying leaves with iron chelate can help determine if interveinal chlorosis is from iron deficiency. It would obviously have a benefit for those landowners with landscape fruit trees that perpetually have flower or fruit disorders associated with micronutrient deficiencies. Applying fertilizers to leaves (or the soil) without regard to actual mineral needs wastes time and money, can injure plant roots and soil organisms, and contributes to the increasing problem of environmental pollution. The bottom line:
• Tree and shrub species differ dramatically in their ability to absorb foliar fertilizers.
• Proper plant selection relative to soil type is crucial to appropriate mineral nutrition.
• Foliar spraying is best accomplished on overcast, cool days to reduce leaf burn.
• In landscape plants, foliar spraying can test for nutrient deficiencies, but not solve them.
• Micronutrients are the only minerals that are effectively applied through foliar application.
• Foliar application will not alleviate mineral deficiencies in roots or subsequent crown growth.
• Foliar spraying is only a temporary solution to the larger problem of soil nutrient availability.
• Minerals (especially micronutrients) applied in amounts that exceed a plant’s needs can injure or kill the plant and contribute to environmental pollution.
• Any benefit from foliar spraying of landscape trees and shrubs is minor considering the cost and labor required."


     Chiming in is Deborah Flower of American River College: "I have been reading ' Plant Physiology' by Taiz and Zeiger, and ' Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants' by Horst Marschner.  The latter discusses foliar feeding in chapter 4.  It says: there are small pores in the cuticle through which minerals can enter the plant.  These pores are in highest density near guard cells around stomata and at base of trichomes (hairs, scales, etc.).  They are tiny and lined with negative charges.  So, only very small (less than one nanometer in diameter) cations and uncharged molecules will enter these openings.
It says leaves do absorb ions, but (pages 123-125):
Rate of uptake is VERY low.
Rate of uptake varies between species and growing conditions.  Plants with thicker cuticle (due to species or growing conditions) absorb less.
Older leaves have lowest rate of uptake due to leaky plant cells that fill intercellular spaces, which is where ions travel in the leaf.
A very high concentration of ions is needed outside the leaf to get any into the leaf.
The supply of nutrients in the leaf from foliar feeding is temporary.
There is limited movement of nutrients from leaves to other plant parts.
Urea can enter leaves through these openings (ammonia and nitrate cannot), because it is an uncharged particle, but can cause damage in the leaf, due to nutrient imbalance in the leaf once it is absorbed.
Surfactants should be used with all foliar feeding to increase surface spread of spray.

      So, my opinion is that yes, plants do absorb nutrients through their leaves (neither book mentioned absorbtion through branches or trunks) but the amount is very small, nutrients do not travel far from point of entry, and there is lots of nutrient run-off during the process, which can lead to pollution.  Therefore, foliar feeding is not effective as the primary source of nutrients for plants. I disagree that foliar feeding gets nutrients to all parts of the plant. There is lots of evidence that fertilizer that gets into the leaf migrates little to other parts of the plant. It stays in the leaf or travels to a strong sink like a fruit.  Foliar feeding can correct micro-nutrient deficiencies in leaves and some fruit, but until the nutrition is balanced in the root zone, the symptom will continue to appear in new plant parts. Many of my students seem to believe foliar feeding is better for the plant than nutrient absorption by roots, and that concerns me.  Foliar feeding can be used to correct some nutritional problems, primarily in production situations, but should not be relied on as the primary source of nutrients for the plant. If people are foliar feeding I believe most of the nutrients being absorbed by the plant are entering the roots, probably after running off the plant onto the soil."



  Milo Shammas, of Dr. Earth, responds: "Fred, all very true and I agree with her, I do not recommend foliar feeding as the primary source of nutrients. Whatever runs off the foliage will ultimately be absorbed by the root system. Nothing can replace ion absorption through the root system.
 Foliar feeding as a supplement? Yes
Is it effective? Yes
Would I depend on it solely? No
Is there harm in using it? No
Do younger leaves absorb it better? Yes
 I own and manage 45 acres of organic walnuts and I personally spray my ranch with Dr. Earth liquid solution twice a year,  I do spend the money on it, I have conducted the efficacy and I know it works, I do believe in it, I do endorse it, I do not depend on it."

    After standing back, listening to all this, I have come to the conclusion: although foliar feeding may have minimal value, it does have a bigger, positive effect: washing off bad bugs from the leaves. Of course, a spray of water can accomplish the same thing.
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Nevada City releases draft Energy Action Plan. Take the survey! http://j.mp/1G3LEWb http://j.mp/1G3LEWb#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 15:50:16 +0000 http://yubanet.com/regional/Nevada-City-releases-draft-Energy-Action-Plan-Take-the-survey.php https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/NevadaCity. The document is available for public review on the City’s website: http://nevadacityca.gov/content/energy-action-plan, at the Planning Department (317 Broad Street) and the Nevada County Library (980 Helling Way).

Through collaboration with Sierra Business Council (SBC) the document is the result of work begun in 2010 which included a comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Inventory for the community. Taking that work to the next level the Energy Action Plan (EAP) contains targeted strategies for increasing energy efficiency in the community. There are five energy reduction focus areas: existing structures, new construction, renewable energy, municipal operations and water conservation. The strategies and implementing actions not only result in reduced emissions but also money saved on energy bills. Additional benefits include greater City self-sufficiency in terms of energy production/usage, potential to spur new business and boost the local economy, and possible access to funding for energy efficiency projects.

This energy planning work is funded by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company’s Government and Community Partnerships Program which provides communities with data that can be used for future planning decisions related to energy usage and efficiency. The Energy Action Plan comes at virtually no cost to the City as SBC researched and wrote the document with staff oversight only at critical junctures.

Nevada City joins six other Sierra Nevada communities engaged in energy efficiency planning: Plymouth, Jackson, Amador County, Loomis, Mariposa County, and Sutter Creek.

Comments or questions should be directed to Nicholas Martin, Sierra Business Council Climate Planning Program Director, nmartin@sierrabusiness.org, (530) 582-4800. The plan is tentatively scheduled for Planning Commission hearing April 16 and Council hearing May 13, 2015. This program is funded by California utility customers and administered by PG&E under the auspices of the California Public Utilities Commission.]]>
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Cooler and breezier today http://j.mp/1G3LFtf http://j.mp/1G3LFtf#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 15:42:02 +0000 http://yubanet.com/regional/Cooler-and-breezier-today.php http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/2015/03/31/cooler-and-breezier-today/feed/ 0 “Fair and balanced” reporting on the new “Dorsey Marketplace”? http://j.mp/1aeObjc http://j.mp/1aeObjc#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:45:01 +0000 http://sierrafoothillsreport.com/?p=72553 Continue reading ]]> http://sierrafoothillsreport.com/2015/03/31/fair-and-balanced-reporting-on-the-new-dorsey-marketplace/feed/ 0 Report: Wearables Set for Rapid Year-to-Year Growth in 2015 http://j.mp/1Dnkucp http://j.mp/1Dnkucp#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:44:07 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24148 https://www.techwire.net/report-wearables-set-for-rapid-year-to-year-growth-in-2015/feed/ 0 IFB: Fire Alarm and Personal Alarm Systems http://j.mp/1Dnks4e http://j.mp/1Dnks4e#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:39:39 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24146 https://www.techwire.net/ifb-fire-alarm-and-personal-alarm-systems/feed/ 0 Draft RFP: Child Welfare Service – New System http://j.mp/1Dnkucz http://j.mp/1Dnkucz#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:38:04 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24144 https://www.techwire.net/draft-rfp-child-welfare-service-new-system/feed/ 0 RFQ: Laboratory Information Management System http://j.mp/1DnkusX http://j.mp/1DnkusX#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:36:38 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24142 https://www.techwire.net/rfq-laboratory-information-management-system/feed/ 0 Analysis: The Overall LCFF Funding Scheme and How DJUSD Fares Under It http://j.mp/1aeLZbr http://j.mp/1aeLZbr#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:01:41 +0000 http://www.davisvanguard.org/?p=49446 http://www.davisvanguard.org/2015/03/analysis-the-overall-lcff-funding-scheme-and-how-djusd-fares-under-it/feed/ 0 Life, Distracted http://j.mp/1aeM2nB http://j.mp/1aeM2nB#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:00:45 +0000 http://www.girlsonthegrid.com/?p=18862 read more]]> http://www.girlsonthegrid.com/life-distracted/feed/ 0 Elk Grove Police Partnering with Nextdoor http://j.mp/1Dnkut1 http://j.mp/1Dnkut1#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:00:13 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24150 https://www.techwire.net/elk-grove-police-partnering-with-nextdoor/feed/ 0 Year-Round Recreation Park at Heavenly Moves Forward http://j.mp/1yw0tsL http://j.mp/1yw0tsL#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:47:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=d651b8f1add19f4c1a89ef388ae253cf Ziplines and other features will be built at Heavenly Mountain Resort.

The Governing Board of the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TARPA) unanimously approved Heavenly Mountain Resort’s proposed Epic Discovery Project. The project will allow year-round outdoor features for recreation at the ski area on U.S. Forest Service land.

The Ski Area Recreational Opportunity Enhancement Act of 2011 has given Heavenly conceptual approval to develop portions of the ski area to enhance recreational opportunities.

Two more approvals need to be obtained before construction can begin. The Lahonton Regional Water Quality Control Board and the U.S. Forest Service will have to approve the project.





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Seamless Bay Area Transit System Proposed to Attract New Riders http://j.mp/1G3RBm8 http://j.mp/1G3RBm8#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:40:11 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24155 https://www.techwire.net/seamless-bay-area-transit-system-proposed-to-attract-new-riders/feed/ 0 Palo Alto Helps Launch Multi-City Innovation Campaign http://j.mp/1G3RCGw http://j.mp/1G3RCGw#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:40:10 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24159 https://www.techwire.net/palo-alto-helps-launch-multi-city-innovation-campaign/feed/ 0 Nevada CIO David Gustafson Resigns http://j.mp/1G3RCGK http://j.mp/1G3RCGK#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:35:47 +0000 https://www.techwire.net/?p=24157 https://www.techwire.net/nevada-cio-david-gustafson-resigns/feed/ 0 League of California Cities Alarmed At Precarious Pavement Conditions http://j.mp/1aeLZIo http://j.mp/1aeLZIo#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:31:12 +0000 http://www.davisvanguard.org/?p=49442 http://www.davisvanguard.org/2015/03/league-of-california-cities-alarmed-at-precarious-pavement-conditions/feed/ 0 Hope http://j.mp/1yvX4tX http://j.mp/1yvX4tX#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:55:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=2ce64b5386c3c4a7586ed3ed49a7093f The drought is taking a toll but hope remains. More from the Rice Commission’s Jim Morris.

Read his blog]]>
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Analysis: No Clear Pattern in Davis’ Uptick in Murders http://j.mp/1I0vSfB http://j.mp/1I0vSfB#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:25:14 +0000 http://www.davisvanguard.org/?p=49440 http://www.davisvanguard.org/2015/03/analysis-no-clear-pattern-in-davis-uptick-in-murders/feed/ 0 Why Davis does spring best http://j.mp/1I0uedL http://j.mp/1I0uedL#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:21:40 +0000 http://www.theaggie.org/?p=37426 http://www.theaggie.org/2015/03/31/why-davis-does-spring-best/feed/ 0 Get Your Party On: O Baby! Shower http://j.mp/1Hhcjw0 http://j.mp/1Hhcjw0#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:00:54 +0000 http://www.amyistheparty.com/?p=9180 Find more posts like this one at amy is the party

Follow the party!

rss subcribesay hellofacebookgoogle plustwitterflickrpinterestinstagram]]>
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The Home Depot DIY Workshop: Vertical Planter http://j.mp/1HhbNhr http://j.mp/1HhbNhr#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:30:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=553c2471a10aacf6e95b3d673923f4e6 http://www.chiclittlehouse.com/feeds/3271319085628144509/comments/default 0 Mayor’s corner: Looking ahead to spring http://j.mp/1HhbMdp http://j.mp/1HhbMdp#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:19:57 +0000 http://www.davisvanguard.org/?p=49415 http://www.davisvanguard.org/2015/03/mayors-corner-looking-ahead-to-spring/feed/ 0 Horse Tail Comes Full Circle #Story http://j.mp/1Hham2o http://j.mp/1Hham2o#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:00:31 +0000 http://findingourwaynow.com/?p=31016 -+*Do you have a fetish or a strong affinity for something? Of course you do. Mine happens to be horses. My story is called (a play on words) “Horse Tail” and what has happened to that affinity throughout the years. (Jeri, this is for you. I hope my “horse tail” makes you smile.) My Horse Tail Do […]

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No Bake Strawberry Shortcake Dessert http://j.mp/19Ep6gr http://j.mp/19Ep6gr#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:00:02 +0000 http://www.crazyforcrust.com/?p=11719 Hey, guess what? I made another no-bake dessert recipe. Are you surprised? #YouShouldntBe This one is perfect for getting you in the springtime mood: Strawberry Shortcake Dessert Lush. It’s got layers of pudding, whipped cream, and strawberries. Just hand me a fork. Things I am currently addicted to: Scandal. Because…obviously. Nutella. It’s like eating a […]

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The Start of Me and You http://j.mp/1xSaQMR http://j.mp/1xSaQMR#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:30:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=760398c65c8883258a08b8f04c0a3e37 http://tableforseven-julie.blogspot.com/feeds/5268473771753553861/comments/default 0 The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies Blu-ray Review http://j.mp/19vqoe0 http://j.mp/19vqoe0#comments Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:57:00 +0000 http://sacramentoconnect.sacbee.com/?guid=7e31c32e9108c6ed57d2ee6c1760d0d7 Reviewed by Sean Ferguson
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00R3DO58K/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00R3DO58K&linkCode=as2&tag=wsb0b7-20&linkId=OFY4VMK2KML6ZYEE
The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armiesbrings to an epic conclusion the adventure of Bilbo Baggins (Martin Freeman), Thorin Oakenshield (Richard Armitage) and the Company of Dwarves. The Dwarves of Erebor have reclaimed the vast wealth of their homeland, but now must face the consequences of having unleashed the terrifying Dragon, Smaug, upon the defenseless men, women and children of Lake-town. As he succumbs to dragon-sickness, the King Under the Mountain, Thorin Oakenshield, sacrifices friendship and honor in search for the legendary Arkenstone. Unable to help Thorin see reason, Bilbo is driven to make a desperate and dangerous choice, not knowing that even greater perils lie ahead. An ancient enemy has returned to Middle-earth. Sauron, the Dark Lord, has sent forth legions of Orcs in a stealth attack upon the Lonely Mountain. As darkness converges on their escalating conflict, the races of Dwarves, Elves and Men must decide – unite or be destroyed. Bilbo finds himself fighting for his life and the lives of his friends as five great armies go to war.
Read more »
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